Central European Annals of Clinical Research

(ISSN: 2668-7305) Open Access Journal
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Central European Annals of Clinical Research (CEACR) is no longer published on JAMS (the publishing platform provided by MDPI) as of 10.07.2021. The articles published until that date are archived at ceacr.archive.jams.pub by courtesy of JAMS.

CEACR 2019, 1(1), 4; doi: 10.35995/ceacr1010004
Received: 22 Nov 2019 / Revised: 3 Dec 2019 / Accepted: 9 Dec 2019 / Published: 18 Dec 2019
Prostatic abscesses are a rare clinical entity in current practice due to the widespread use of antibiotics. Management usually imposes a challenge to urologists that is due to the difficult diagnosis, as it may mimic other diseases of the lower urinary tract and the lack of guidelines for treatment. Prostate abscess (PA) usually develops in immunocompromised patients, including diabetic and HIV patients, as a consequence of acute bacterial prostatitis. The reason for the lack of guidelines as regards PA is that most of the published data in the literature are case reports due to the declining incidence of the disease today. We presented a male patient who was not foreknown with pathological or personal antecedents or a promiscuous lifestyle. He was hospitalized in the urology section with subfebrility and lumbar pain. His general condition changed rapidly within the span of a few hours, the patient entering septic shock without an etiology or a determined infection. After careful serial investigations, hemocultures (atypical germs) for IgM antibodies Chlamydia Pneumoniae were found in the serological complement fixation (cf) test. The patient responded well to empirically initiated antibiotic treatment upon admission to Intensive Care. Due to a favorable evolution, the patient was declared clinically healthy upon discharge. This was a rare case in medical literature of septic shock of initially unspecified etiology but which, upon thorough investigations and urological reevaluation, revealed a prostatic abscess with Chlamydia Pneumoniae, exteriorized through the urethra and highlighted through positive hemocultures only. Full article
CEACR 2019, 1(1), 6; doi: 10.35995/ceacr1010006
Received: 22 Nov 2019 / Revised: 14 Dec 2019 / Accepted: 14 Dec 2019 / Published: 25 Dec 2019
We present the case of a 54-year old woman diagnosed with chronic suppurative otitis media, who was admitted to the ENT Department with four-week-old, sudden-onset, left-sided facial nerve paralysis, and ipsilateral otalgia and hemicrania. Physical examination revealed positive signs of acute postaural inflammation. The patient’s facial nerve paralysis was scored as VI, according to the House-Brackmann scale. A cranio-facial computer tomography examination revealed mastoid cavity opacification, mucosal hypertrophy, and signs of chronic osteitis, with minimal mucous accumulation. The patient underwent a radical modified mastoidectomy with type-I tympanoplasty to verify the presence of a cholesteatoma, and to remove the offending lesions. Post-operatively, patient evolution was favorable, and prognosis remained encouraging. The patient’s evolution will be followed by check-ups every three months to assess progress and benefits of the treatment. Full article
CEACR 2020, 2(1), 2; doi: 10.35995/ceacr2010002
Received: 21 Jul 2020 / Revised: 15 Aug 2020 / Accepted: 19 Aug 2020 / Published: 14 Sep 2020
In polytrauma cases with thoracic injury and long-term chest tube drain, there is a risk of pulmonary arteriovenous fistula formation, which mostly remains undiagnosed. The pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas lead to the right to left shunt and could be a potential source of systemic septic embolism. Here, we describe a recovering polytrauma patient, who spontaneously developed septic embolic encephalitis and endogenous endophthalmitis, with no evident source of septic systemic embolism. We suspect the pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas due to thoracic injury or chest tube drain could be the possible source of septic systemic embolism, which needs to be evaluated in such cases after excluding common causes. Full article
CEACR 2020, 2(1), 4; doi: 10.35995/ceacr2010004
Received: 31 Jul 2020 / Revised: 9 Aug 2020 / Accepted: 19 Aug 2020 / Published: 14 Sep 2020
(1) Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with the development of Acute COVID-19 Cardiovascular Syndrome (ACovCS) in critically ill patients. In this case series, we evaluated the incidence of ACovCS by ultrasound in critically COVID-19 ill patients. (2) Methods: This case series included all patients with confirmed COVID-19 requiring admission to the ICU at Monaldi Hospital (AORN Ospedale dei Colli, Naples), between March 14th, 2020, and May 1st, 2020. On admission, in stable clinical conditions, an experienced and certified intensivist performed Point-Of-Care Cardiac Ultrasound (POC-CU). The exam was performed daily in every patient and repeated according to clinical evolution and intensivist’s judgment during the length of stay. Ex-Novo ACovCS echocardiographic patterns were noted. (3) Results: POC-CU evaluation performed on 19 patients revealed that, on admission, five patients (26.3%) presented an echocardiographic pattern like cor pulmonale. During the length of stay, seven patients (36.8%) presented ex-Novo echocardiographic alterations, suggesting ACovCS. Pericardial effusion (26.3%), acute right impairment due to pulmonary embolism (5.3%) and acute left impairment by wall motion alteration (5.3%) were the most common findings. (4) Conclusions: Ex-Novo cardiac abnormalities shown by POC-CU were common in patients with severe COVID-19. Competence in POC-CU is essential in identifying ACovCS in COVID-ICU and clinical decision-making. Full article
CEACR 2020, 2(1), 5; doi: 10.35995/ceacr2010005
Received: 13 Aug 2020 / Revised: 16 Sep 2020 / Accepted: 17 Sep 2020 / Published: 23 Sep 2020
Diagnosis and following up the dynamics of Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome demand a more feasible, non-invasive and bedside tool, such as lung ultrasound, for monitoring the damaged lungs. We report on a 6-month-old child admitted in our Pediatric Surgical Intensive Care Unit with a clinical presentation of ileus and concomitant community acquired pneumonia. Lung ultrasound (LUS) examinations according to the BLUE Protocol were done several times during the hospital stay. A-lines were seen at admission in the upper segments, but 2–3 B-lines were present in the posterolateral segments bilaterally. Later on, separated and coalescent B-lines were seen. White lung parenchyma or milky lungs with a thickened pleural line were seen, while the worst gas exchange according to the results of Arterial Blood Gases (ABGs) has been detected. According to the findings, as many B-lines will be detected, as the severeness of lung damage and gas exchange impairement. The improvement of the gas exchange with the disappearance of the coalescent B-lines was seen later on, after ventilating the child in a prone position. Bedsides, LUS is a feasible and non-invasive point of care method that could be used for diagnosing Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (PARDS) but in guiding therapy of the damaged lungs, also. The finding of diffuse, coalescent and homogenous B-lines interpreted as “Milky lungs” is consistent with the diagnosis of PARDS. Full article
CEACR 2020, 2(1), 3; doi: 10.35995/ceacr2010003
Received: 21 Jul 2020 / Revised: 13 Aug 2020 / Accepted: 19 Aug 2020 / Published: 27 Sep 2020
Accurate prediction of a difficult airway patient remains a challenge among laryngoscopists and anesthesia providers. Despite the lack of sensitivity and specificity of routine preoperative airway tests, many providers still perform them, suggesting they may still guide and influence airway planning. The most commonly used Mallampati exam has a low sensitivity. Our hypothesis was that digital documentation of the airway exam would improve intraobserver reliability between airway exams and provide more consistent information for airway providers. We obtained written informed consent from 250 patients presenting to the UF Health Shands Presurgical Center to participate in an observational cohort study. Their airway exam was photographed and uploaded into the electronic medical record. Data extracted from the electronic medical record were reviewed by three independent investigators. From chi-square analyses, there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in all measures across raters, indicating raters had varied assessments and predictions about patients. There were no statistically significant associations (p > 0.05) between Mallampati scores from the preassessment or reviews of photographs and the method of intubation or laryngoscopic view observed in the patient. There was also no statistically significant association between the Mallampati score and the use of video laryngoscopy for the intubation method. Moderate intraobserver reliability of the Mallampati exam may be a confounding factor regarding the lack of a significant relationship between the Mallampati exam and the assessment of whether a patient may be difficult to intubate, or the method chosen to facilitate intubation in this study. Full article
CEACR 2019, 1(1), 2; doi: 10.35995/ceacr1010002
Received: 25 Nov 2019 / Revised: 26 Nov 2019 / Accepted: 26 Nov 2019 / Published: 2 Dec 2019
The optimisation of DO2, within the Goal-Direct Therapy Protocol (GDTP) in high-risk surgical patients, improves their outcome. Haemodynamic and haemoglobin monitoring become crucial to achieve optimal DO2. Our study compared Hb as measured by three methods: Coulter Counter (standard laboratory method) and CO-Oximetry (Masimo rainbow SET Radical 7 Pulse CO-Oximetry (SpHb) and Blood Gas Analysis) to establish the utility of the Hb continuous intraoperative monitoring, within the GDTP, in high-risk bleeding surgery. We studied 72 patients undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. We compared the accuracy and the trending ability in measuring the haemoglobin concentration between the three methods (Coulter Counter, BGA and Masimo). We collected three simultaneous haemoglobin measurements: after induction of anaesthesia, pre- and post-aortic cross-clamping and at the end of the surgery. SpHb showed an excellent r-value for all samples (0.952, CI-95% (0.939, 0.961), p-value < 0.0001) compared to laboratory measurements. The results of the linear regression between SpHb and laboratory, for each time considered, demonstrated that SpHb showed excellent r and R2 value. All data were statistically significant, with a p-value <0.0001. A Bland-Altmann analysis for SpHb vs. laboratory showed a bias of −1.45 g/dL (CI-95% −1.51 and −1.39 g/dL, LOA from −2.42 to −0.48 g/dL) with a precision of 0.49 g/dL. Four-quadrant plot trend analyses showed a high concordance rate ≥90%. During elective high-risk surgery, Masimo Pulse CO-Oximetry is not enough sufficiently accurate to assess the current value of haemoglobin but may be useful for the trend value ensuring DO2 within intraoperative GDTP. Full article
CEACR 2019, 1(1), 3; doi: 10.35995/ceacr1010003
Received: 25 Nov 2019 / Revised: 26 Nov 2019 / Accepted: 26 Nov 2019 / Published: 3 Dec 2019
Nurses in Intensive Care Units (ICU) may be exposed to considerable stress of work. High levels of stress in ICU nurses affect the quality of nursing and the quality of life at work. Determination of occupational stress levels, burnout syndrome and overall job satisfaction among ICU nurses. The research was conducted in Intensive Care Unit of Emergency Clinical County Hospital of Oradea, Romania. Data were collected from the questionnaires, 29 nurses (of the 35) were selected for this study. Professional stress factors have been assessed through Expanded Nurses Stress Scale (ENSS), burnout syndrome through Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), while overall job satisfaction was measured by a 7-step Likert scale. The highest levels of stress were associated with workload and conflicts with other health professionals, professional relationship between nurses have been described as the least stressful. About burnout levels: a high score for emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and a low score for professional achievements. Professional satisfaction has reached an average level. The fidelity of the scales was verified by the Cronbach’s alfa coefficient: Expanded Nurses Stress Scale (ENSS) (0.98) and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) (0.73). Full article
CEACR 2019, 1(1), 5; doi: 10.35995/ceacr1010005
Received: 27 Nov 2019 / Revised: 10 Dec 2019 / Accepted: 10 Dec 2019 / Published: 16 Dec 2019
Emergency medicine specialists’ mental and physical health may be threatened if they experience burnout, sleep disorders, and secondary traumatic stress (STS). We aimed to investigate whether Emergency Medical Services (EMs) professionals’ mental and physical health status, depression, and anxiety are associated with burnout, STS, and sleep disorders. We hypothesized that burnout, STS, and the severity of sleep disorders would raise the risk of impaired mental, and physical health, depression, and anxiety in emergency medical clinicians. A cross-sectional multicentric study was conducted. In total,178 EMs specialists completed validated surveys to assess mental health complaints (Mental Health Inventory, MHI-5 screening test), physical health complaints (Ware scale), depression, and anxiety (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-DASS), burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-general survey, MBI-GS), sleep disorders (Insomnia Severity Index, ISI), and STS (STS scale). This study aimed to analyze the influence that work-related factors can have on EMs specialists’ mental and physical health, depression, and anxiety. Specifically, mental health was predicted by exhaustion (β = 0.16), cynicism (β = 0.21), insomnia severity (β = 0.13), and STS (β = 0.35); physical health was predicted by exhaustion (β = 0.33) and insomnia severity (β = 0.18); depression was predicted by cynicism (β = 0.21) and STS (β = 0.46); and anxiety was predicted by STS (β = 0.63) and inefficacy (β = 0.20). Work-related stress symptoms such as burnout, STS, and sleep disorders were found to predict emergency medicine clinicians’ mental and physical health, as well to increase the risk of depression and anxiety. It is of most importance to develop practices to prevent such symptoms and to promote mental health and well-being among the emergency medicine personnel. Full article
CEACR 2020, 2(1), 1; doi: 10.35995/ceacr2010001
Received: 2 Dec 2019 / Revised: 29 Dec 2019 / Accepted: 3 Jan 2020 / Published: 15 Jan 2020
Vitamin D, called “the sunshine vitamin” is essential for the good functioning of the human body. Vitamin D generates its principal effects via the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a specific zinc-finger nuclear receptor, located primarily in the nuclei of target cells. VDR is present in most tissues and cells in the body such as in the: digestive system, cardiovascular system, immune system. This receptor represents the key to the understanding of vitamin D non-skeletal effects. Recently, some data were published on the correlation between vitamin D levels and sepsis, indicating a prevalence of vitamin D deficiency of approximately 61.6% in sepsis patients and of 74% in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU). Vitamin D deficiency in critically ill patients is associated with infection and sepsis, and this association is based on the relation between vitamin D and inflammatory cytokine. Vitamin D, via VDR influences the secretion of cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. Practically, vitamin D acts as an immunomodulator stimulating the differentiation of cells of the innate immune system and, regulating T and B cell proliferation. The data clearly show predominant effects of vitamin D on the adaptive immune function. Vitamin D modulates the T cell phenotype specially that of CD4+ helper T cells (Th1, Th2, as well as Th17 sub-grups). The amplitude of the response to vitamin D depends on a cell’s state of activation, as the number of VDR in inactive cells is low, but may increase five times after activation It was found that the intestinal expression of VDR regulates the host’s microbiome and mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of probiotics. A low level of vitamin D in ICU patients is demonstrated and has many causes. The rapid correction of this deficiency by administering very high doses of vitamin D is possible without causing adverse effects like hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria. Vitamin D is more than just a vitamin. It has clear effects on the immune system, in particular in patients with autoimmune diseases and critically ill. Currently, the majority of data strongly support the association, between low vitamin D levels and sepsis rather than a causal relation. Vitamin D is emerging as a promising and relatively safe nutrient for developing new preventive strategies and adjuvant treatments of diseases, caused by impaired immune-homeostasis. In addition, its supplmentation is very easy and safe. Full article
CEACR 2019, 1(1), 1; doi: 10.35995/ceacr1010001
Received: 25 Nov 2019 / Revised: 28 Nov 2019 / Accepted: 25 Nov 2019 / Published: 3 Dec 2019
Anesthetic practice for emergency surgery has continuously developed since its beginnings [...] Full article
CEACR 2019, 1(1), 7; doi: 10.35995/ceacr1010007
Received: 9 Dec 2019 / Revised: 14 Dec 2019 / Accepted: 15 Dec 2019 / Published: 17 Dec 2019
A 26 year old woman was admitted to the emergency room 2 weeks after delivery of a healthy baby by cesarean(C) section, presenting right hemiparesis and speech disturbances, preceded by headaches. Clinical examination, biochemical tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRA (magnetic resonance angiogram) confirmed the diagnosis of ischemic stroke due to a cerebral venous thrombosis with secondary hemorrhage transformation. Further coagulation work-ups revealed a possible thrombogenic condition with important protein S deficiency. Many therapeutic challenges have been encountered. Multiple seizures attacks further complicated the whole clinical picture, but a gradually recovery was slowly achieved. By the day of discharge, her neurological status greatly improved. A temporary headache was reported after hospital discharge with alleviation in time. Full article
CEACR 2020, 2(1), 6; doi: 10.35995/ceacr2010006
Received: 30 Aug 2020 / Revised: 21 Sep 2020 / Accepted: 22 Sep 2020 / Published: 30 Sep 2020
Background: Postoperative dynamic pain is often associated with increased morbidity and hospital stays. Thoracic epidural analgesia is the gold standard for postoperative pain control in patients with upper abdominal surgeries, providing significant improvements in dynamic pain scores and early mobilisation. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate postoperative static and dynamic pain control with three concentrations of thoracic epidural bupivacaine mixed with a fixed dose of fentanyl infusion in major abdominal surgeries. Method: The patients meeting the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to three different groups. Thoracic epidural bupivacaine infusions, with concentrations of 0.0625%, 0.1% and 0.125%, mixed with fentanyl 1 μg/mL, were given through a Baxter elastomeric pump at the rate of 5 mL/hour, and labelled as Group A, Group B and Group C, respectively. The patients were followed up to the third postoperative day for the assessment of static pain score, dynamic pain score, respiratory depression, blood pressure, sedation, motor weakness, postoperative nausea and vomiting. Results: Group B and Group C, with bupivacaine concentrations of 0.1% and 0.125%, respectively, had significantly better static and dynamic pain control in comparison to Group A, with a bupivacaine concentration of 0.0625%. Hypotension was significantly higher in Group C than in other groups. The incidence of other side effects, including motor block, pruritus, postoperative nausea and vomiting, were found to be highest in Group C compared to the other groups, though the difference was not significant. Conclusion: We recommend a thoracic epidural infusion with a bupivacaine concentration of 0.1% with 1 µg/mL fentanyl for postoperative pain management in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Full article

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